India’s New IPR Policy

The Indian government published the National Intellectual Rights Policy in May 2016. The policy has been formulated keeping in mind that there is a lack of awareness with regard to the obtaining of Intellectual Property Rights in India. The aim of India’s IPR policy is to promote the “knowledge economy”, which the policy defines as “an economy that creates, disseminates and uses knowledge to enhance its growth and development.” This is a goal complementary to Open Access, which aims to effectuate openness in obtaining, publishing and processing research, in order to create a knowledge based society. IPR could be perceived as a restriction on open access because it allows those who invent and innovate to have exclusive rights to the usage of that invention. However, IPR is necessary to encourage creativity and innovation, by allowing inventors to earn from their inventions, but the existing legal regime could be tweaked in order to support Open Access. More information about IPR and the alternatives to the existing IPR regime is here. India’s policy is framed in order to increase the prevalence of IPR. There is even a provision for the creation of special courts for IPR enforcement, which would encourage the usage of IPR.

However, some aspects of the policy could be improved upon to have better social impact. For example, one of the objectives of India’s IPR policy is to “Get value for IPRs through commercialization”. This objective states that value and economic reward for IP holders is obtained is through commercialization of IPR. While commercialized rights do protect investors, it is important to recognize that commercialization sometimes means lack of access to information. For example, say an IP holder sells her rights to a large corporation, then this means that they would not be in charge of their own rights. Therefore, a researcher may not have the legal right to share his work even though he may wish to see his research be utilized by others worldwide. The IPR policy does not prevent this utilization, of course, but a blanket promotion of commercialization may inadvertently discourage open access. To illustrate, to encourage commercialization would effectively discourage the usage of APF or repository system of sharing research. The policy also aims to commercialize even publically funded research, infact suggest that R&D institutions should reward researchers on the basis of IPR creation. This may not meet the policy’s aims, as IPR driven research is not always socially beneficial research. Moreover, publicly-funded research is slowly moving into the field of Open Access all around the world. For example, the EU recently announced that all publically funded research should be OA by 2020. Infact, the principles of this policy might not be directly aligned with the goals of the Indian government as well. Prime Minister Modi has expressed the ideas India ruling the 21st century, calling it the ‘era of knowledge’. Various institutions in India, such as the Department of Science and Technology have applied an open access policy across their departments. In 2012, India released the “National Data Sharing and Accessibility Policy”, which tries to improve data management through open access. Such positive steps are benefitting Indian scientists and researchers.

The strengthening of the IPR system in India could be improved by taking into consideration the larger societal requirement of sharing of research. An IPR system is beneficial for the holistic development of knowledge, but it is not enough. Research and innovation is complementary and complex, and greater protection for the innovator is not always the best approach. This is the most apparent in the sciences, since research is often expensive and time consuming. In developing countries, sparse resources would be wasted in situations where two laboratories may produce duplicative research. A system which would implement IPR without compromising Open Access would serve the interests of the nation better, and truly make India a knowledge producer.

This blog was originally posted on the WSIS KC Blog. 

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Be kind…share!

Thanks to the Open Access Policy that the India’s department of science and technology (DST) and the department of biotechnology (DBT) introduced last December, open access is at the forefront of research interest and its importance is certainly highly understood to allow  researchers to publish in “high quality, peer-reviewed” journals and at the same time giving free access to information and data to the public.

Certainly a key role to this shift has been that of Open Access India, a community of practice that advocates for and assist with all aspects related to publishing using Open Access mechanisms.

It might seem surprising that this news are welcome with such enthusiasm as it would probably appear obvious to most people that research results should be available to everyone without any legal or technical restrictions especially when that same public has contributed with its taxes to the research behind the resulting knowledge.

Sadly though in many research environments this is not the case- yet! Often knowledge and information is in practice not shared but in fact locked away leaving out a huge percentage of readers who could otherwise benefit from it. The scientific community has been resisting to embrace Open Access mainly because of costs, reputation, and fears of plagiarism.

Cost: it is true that publishing on Open Access Journals involves a cost: however, given that governments and donors push for such approach, it should be the same donors who fund the open access publication; all proposals therefore ought to include that cost and fracture it in.

Reputation: it is no longer valid the argument that Open Access Journals are not good. Many well-kown journals like Elsevier now offer several Open Access options and it is easy to distinguish the predatory journals from the genuine ones that have as real object that of disseminating knowledge.

Plagiarism: by making research results and knowledge accessible and available and thus under everyone’s eye, attempts to copy and misappropriate somebody’s else work will become even more obvious and visible rather than the other way round.

All in all it seems therefore that these fears are not grounded while the benefits are enormous. I copy here a wonderful graphic representation done by the Danny Kingsley & Sarah Brown which nails the issue down perfectly. cc-by_logoSurprisingly the CGIAR has only recently started seriously this approach. With the aim of improving the efficiency, efficacy, and impact of its research, on 2 October 2013 the Open Access and Data Management Policy was approved by the CGIAR Consortium Board to make unrestricted and free online access to and re-use, by any user worldwide, of all information products generated within the CGIAR research.

Open Access is not a fashion or trend; it is a strategy to ensure that research results can become truly international public goods while assisting scientists in building their publication reputation.

So if you love knowledge, be kind, share it! Love OA

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Submission to ICAR on its Open Access Policy 2013 Draft

Submission on ICAR’s Open Access Policy 2013 Draft

 We on behalf of the Open Access India community submit the following  Modified Open Access Policy Draft to Dr. D. Rama Rao, National Director, NAIP for formulating an Open Access Policy of Indian Council of Agricultural Research. This modified draft is built upon the Original Policy Draft prepared by the Committee on Open Access in ICAR after taking inputs  from the Global Open Access Community.

  1.  All the constituent establishments under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) to set up their Open Access Institutional Repositories, Open Access Data Repositories and Open Educational Resources using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) systems which support the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH) protocol for public good.
  2. All the ICAR establishments to register their repositories, resources and information products/services with the Coherence in Information for Agricultural Research for Development (CIARD)’s Routemap to Information Nodes and Gateways (RING) for the availability and accessibility of agricultural knowledge produced to the world through CIARD RING India.
  3. The ICAR shall set up a central harvester using the free metadata indexing system to harvest the metadata from the repositories of the ICAR establishments and other repositories of the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) for establishing ‘One Stop Access Portal’ for all the agricultural knowledge generated in the NARS and CIARD RING India.
  4. All the research outputs produced from the research funded by the ICAR or by other Public Funds at either ICAR establishments or elsewhere in the NARS are required to deposit in the ICAR institute’s Open Access Institutional Repositories or in any other appropriate Open Access repositories of the NARS viz., Agropedia (OpenAgri), Rice Knowledge Management Portal etc.
  5. The authors of the scholarly literature produced from the research funded  in whole or part by the ICAR or by other Public Funds at either ICAR establishments or elsewhere in the NARS are required to deposit the final version of the author’s peer-reviewed manuscript at the time of acceptance and no later than the time of publication in the ICAR institute’s Open Access Institutional Repositories or in any other appropriate Open Access repositories of NARS viz., Agropedia (OpenAgri), Rice Knowledge Management Portal etc.
  6. All the archives, current and future scholarly and grey literature viz., research articles, popular articles, book chapters, books, monographs, catalogues, conference proceedings, success stories, case studies, annual reports, newsletters, booklets, bulletins, project reports, class/lecture notes, presentation slides, photos, videos, speeches, keynote addresses, patent grant publications, data sets etc., produced by the ICAR establishments to be made available under Open Access via repositories.
  7. All the ICAR research staff, students and visitors at ICAR institutes are encouraged to confer with the SHERPA/RoMEO database of publishers’ policies on copyright and self-archiving and are advised to publish their research outputs in those journals which allows self-archiving in the Open Access Repositories. They are also advised to use ‘Authors Addendum’ mentioning the ICAR’s Open Access Policy of mandatory deposit of the final version of the author’s peer-reviewed manuscript at the time of acceptance and no later than the time of publication in the ICAR institute’s Open Access Institutional Repositories while signing the while signing the publishers’ copyright agreements. The embargo if any should not be later than 6 months from publication date for making the deposits open to public.
  8. Final reports of the completed research projects, Masters, Doctoral and Post Doctoral thesis dissertations produced in the ICAR establishments are to be deposited immediately in the institutes open access repository upon submission. The metadata is freely available from the time of deposition of the content and full-texts be made Open Access after an embargo period not later than 12 months. The ‘Krishi Prabha’, an electronic thesis and dissertations database of NARS be made Open Access and OAI-PMH compatible.
  9. All the journals published by ICAR have been made Open Access and all the books published by ICAR, journals, books, conference/seminar proceedings and any other scholarly/grey literature published by the ICAR/NARS institutes and scholarly/professional societies with substantial financial support from ICAR are to be made available as Open Access publications.
  10. The commercial books authored by the ICAR staff on personal contract may negotiate with the publishers to share them via ICAR OAIRs after a suitable embargo period.
  11. The documents having material to be patented or commercialized, or where the promulgations would infringe a legal commitment by the institution and/or the author, may be exempted from this policy. However, once they are available, the work is to be made accessible to the public via repositories.

Rights and Permissions

  1. All the ICAR institute’s website content, print/digital publications, meta-data and full-texts in repositories are recommended to be licensed for public use under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC-BY 3.0) Unported License and unless otherwise noted, the users are free to copy, duplicate or reproduce, and distribute, display, or transmit without permission, and to make translations, adaptations or other derivative works, and to make commercial use of work under the following condition: Attribution — Users must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).

Implementation

  1. The Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture (DKMA) to serve as the nodal agency for implementation of ICAR Open Access policy. The DKMA along with Agricultural Knowledge Management Units (AKMUs) in ICAR establishments and other agencies/communities viz., GFAR, CIARD, AIMS and Open Access India  would organize advocacy workshops and capacity building for researchers, repository administrators, editors and publishers on Open Access Repositories, Open Access Journals and application and usage of Free and Open Source Software systems related to scholarly communications.

Complied by: Sridhar Gutam, Convenor, Open Access India, with kind inputs and consultation with Ajit Maru, Sanjaya Mishra, Kamal Saxena, Shyamal Lakshminarayanan, Peter Murray-Rust, Mike Taylor, Jenny Molly, Christian Heise, Peter Suber, Stevan Harnard, Heather Morrison (who argued against CC-BY), Reme Melero and many others from Open Access Community.

 PS. The original draft may be accessed here or at http://www.icar.org.in/en/node/6056

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Comments to ICAR Open Access Policy Draft 2013

oaicar

Following are the comments to ICAR Open Access Policy Draft 2013 from the Open Access India Community. As 23rd May 2013 is the last date for sending the comments/suggestions. You are requested to share your suggestions below the post and same would be incorporated in the final submission to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).

  • Policy: All ICAR institutes to setup their Open Access Institutional Repository using Free and Open Source Software which is of Open Archive Initiative (OAI-MHP) complaint.
  • Suggestion: All the constituent establishment institutes of the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) institutes to set up their Open Access Institutional Repositories (OAIRs), Open Access Data Repository[1] for the datasets produced by ICAR and Open Educational Resources[2] for educational material relevant to agriculture and related sciences using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) systems[3] which support the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting[4] (OAI-PMH) protocol for public good.
  • Policy: The ICAR shall set up a central harvester using the free metadata indexing system[5] to harvest the metadata from the OAIRs of the ICAR institutes and other repositories[6] in the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) for the ‘one stop access portal’ of all the agricultural knowledge generated in the NARS.
  • Suggestion: ICAR shall set up a central harvester to harvest the metadata and full-text of all the records from the OA repositories of the ICAR institutes for one stop access to all the agricultural knowledge generated in ICAR. All the ICAR institutes register their information products and services with the Coherence in Information for Agricultural Research for Development[7] (CIARD)’s Routemap to Information Nodes and Gateways[8] (RING) for their discovery across the world.
  • Policy: All research and technical publications viz., research articles, popular articles, book chapters, books, monograms, catalogues, conference proceedings, success stories, case studies, annual reports, newsletters, pamphlets, brochures, bulletins, summary of the completed projects, class/lecture notes, presentations, photos, videos, speeches, keynote addresses, other digital objects and all the gray literature  available with the institutes to be placed under Open Access.
  • Suggestion: All the archives, current and future scholarly and grey literature viz., research articles, popular articles, book chapters, books, monographs, catalogues, conference proceedings, success stories, case studies, annual reports, newsletters, booklets, bulletins, summary of the completed projects, class/lecture notes, presentation slides, photos, videos, speeches, keynote addresses, patent grant publications, data sets etc., produced by the ICAR institutes/establishments to be made under Open Access.
  • Policy: The authors of the scholarly articles produced from the research conducted at ICAR institutes have to deposit immediately the final authors’ version manuscripts of papers upon accepted for publication (pre-prints) in the institute’s Open Access repository.
  • Suggestion: The authors of the scholarly literature/research outputs produced from the research funded by the ICAR at either ICAR institutes or elsewhere in the NARS have to deposit immediately the final peer-reviewed authors’ version manuscripts (post-prints)[9] in the OAIRs or in any other appropriate Open Access repositories of NARS upon acceptance for publication.
  • Policy: Scientists and other research personnel of ICAR working in ICAR institutes or elsewhere are encouraged to publish their research work with publishers which allow self-archiving in Open Access Institutional Repositories and required to submit the final manuscript of paper accepted for publication (pre-print) in the ICAR institute’s Open Access repository.
  • Policy: Scientists are advised to mention the ICAR’s Open Access policy while signing the copyright agreements with the publishers. And the embargo if any should not be later than 6 months.
  • Suggestion: Above points may be merged as: All the ICAR research staff, students and visitors at ICAR institutes are encouraged to consult the SHERPA/RoMEO[10] database of publishers’ policies on copyright and self-archiving for publishing their research outputs in those journals which allows self-archiving in Open Access Repositories and are advised to use ‘Authors Addendum’[11] to the copyright agreements mentioning the ICAR’s Open Access Policy of mandatory deposit of post-prints while signing the agreements with the publishers. And the embargo[12] if any should not be later than 6 months.
  • Policy: Final reports of completed research projects and M.Sc. and Ph.D. thesis/dissertations to be deposited immediately in the institutes open access repository after completion of the work. The metadata (e.g., title, authors, publisher, etc.) be freely accessible from the time of deposition of the content and their free unrestricted use through Open Access can be made after an embargo period not more than 12 months.
  • Suggestion: Final reports of the completed research projects and M.Sc. and Ph.D. thesis dissertations to be deposited immediately in the institutes open access repository upon submission and the metadata (e.g., title, authors, publisher, etc.) be freely available from the time of deposition of the content and made Open Access after an embargo period not later than 12 months. The Krishi Prabha[13], an electronic thesis and dissertations database of NARS be made Open Access and OAI-PMH compatible.
  • Policy: All the journals published by ICAR have been made Open Access. All the books published by ICAR and journals and books published by ICAR institutes are to be made Open Access.
  • Policy: Journals, books, conference proceedings and other scholarly literature published with substantial support from ICAR (by professional societies and others) to be made Open Access by the end of 2013.
  • Suggestion: Above points may be merged as: All the journals published by ICAR have been made Open Access[14] and all the books published by ICAR, journals, books, conference/seminar proceedings and any other scholarly/grey literature published by the ICAR/NARS institutes and scholarly/professional societies with substantial funding from ICAR are to be made Open Access.
  • Policy: DKMA to function as nodal agency for implementation of ICAR Open Access policy. DKMA will organise advocacy workshops and capacity building of scientific &technical personnel, repository administrators, editors and publishers on Institutional Repositories, application and usage of Free and Open Source Software. All the meta-data, full-texts and other records/data/information of the institutional repositories are copyrighted with the ICAR and are licensed under Creative Commons Non Commercial Share Alike (CC-NC-SA) for use, re-use and sharing without any warranty.
  • Suggestion: Moved to Rights and Permissions
  • Policy: The documents having material to be patented or commercialized, or where the promulgations would infringe a legal commitment by the institution and/or the author, may not be included in the institute’s Open Access repository. However, the commercial books authored on contract by the ICAR staff may negotiate with the publishers to share the same via institutional repositories after a suitable embargo period.
  • Suggestion: The documents having material to be patented or commercialized, or where the promulgations would infringe a legal commitment by the institution and/or the author, may be exempted for mandatory deposit in the institute’s Open Access repository. However, the commercial books authored on personal contract by the ICAR staff may negotiate with the publishers to share them via ICAR OAIRs after a suitable embargo period.

Rights and Permissions

  • All the ICAR institute’s website content, print/digital publications, meta-data and full-texts in OAIRs be licensed for use under the Creative Commons Attribution-3.0 (CC-BY-3.0)[15] Unported License and unless otherwise noted, the users are free to copy, duplicate or reproduce, and distribute, display, or transmit without permission, and to make commercial use of the work under the condition – Attribution — Users must attribute the work in the manner specified by the author or licensor (but not in any way that suggests that they endorse you or your use of the work).

Implementation:

  • Policy: DKMA to function as nodal agency for implementation of ICAR Open Access policy. DKMA will organise advocacy workshops and capacity building of scientific &technical personnel, repository administrators, editors and publishers on Institutional Repositories, application and usage of Free and Open Source Software. All the meta-data, full-texts and other records/data/information of the institutional repositories are copyrighted with the ICAR and are licensed under Creative Commons Non Commercial Share Alike (CC-NC-SA) for use, re-use and sharing without any warranty.
  • Suggestion: The Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture (DKMA) to function as nodal agency for implementation of ICAR Open Access policy. The DKMA along with Agricultural Knowledge Management Units (AKMUs) in ICAR institutes and other agencies[16] and communities[17] would organise advocacy workshops and capacity building of scientific &technical personnel, repository administrators, editors and publishers on OAIRs, Open Access Journals and application and usage of Free and Open Source Software systems related to scholarly communications.

[1]http://dataverse.icrisat.org/dvn/
[2] http://www.oerafrica.org/agricultureoer/AgricultureOER/tabid/1466/Default.aspx
[3] GNU EPrints, Fedora Commons, DSpace etc.
[4] http://www.openarchives.org/pmh/
[5] Open Harvester Systems http://pkp.sfu.ca/harvester
[6] Agropedia, Rice Knowledge Management Portal, ETD@UAS, Dharwad, Krishi Kosh etc.
[7] http://www.ciard.net/
[8] http://www.ciard.net/ciard-ring-0
[9] Draft of a manuscript after it has been peer reviewed with revisions having been made.
[10] http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/
[11] http://scholars.sciencecommons.org/
[12] Period during which access is not allowed to the public.
[13] http://14.139.232.167:8080/equestthesis/
[14] http://epubs.icar.org.in/ejournal/index.php/
[15] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ NISCAIR (CSIR) Online Periodicals Repository is using CC-BY-NC-ND
[16] Agricultural Information Standards http://aims.fao.org/
[17] Open Access India http://oaindia2013.wordpress.com/

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UNESCO adopts Open Access policy for its publications

unesco_logo_enUNESCO to make its publications available free of charge as part of a new Open Access policy

UNESCO will make its digital publications available to millions of people around the world free-of-charge with an open license. As per UNESCO’s Press Release on 14.05.2013, this policy was announced by Mr. Janis Karklins, UNESCO’s Assistant Director-General for Communication and Information during the opening of the World Summit on the Information Society Forum in Geneva on 13 May . Full-text to the Policy is available here. Earlier it has issued policy guidelines for the development and promotion of Open Access in its member states.

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ICAR’s Open Access Policy Draft (2013)

ICAR’s Open Access Policy Draft (2013)

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) had placed its Open Access Policy Draft on its website and is open for comments till 23 May 2013. It is requested that all the stakeholders to see the draft and send their comments to pddkma@icar.org.in or ndnaip@icar.org.in

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Opening up of access to Agricultural Knowledge and Information in ICAR

Opening up of access to Agricultural Knowledge and Information in ICAR

The Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) had started a discussion on its Facebook page about Opening up of access to Agricultural Knowledge in ICAR. Please visit the post here and give your suggestions or share your comments. Thank you.

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Towards a Policy on Opening Access to Agriculture Knowledge for Development

http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/
http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/

A lot of valuable data and information is generated by the constituents of the National Agricultural Research System (NARS) in India which would guide us in taking the right decisions at the right time for addressing the issues related to agriculture. However, this data and information though ‘available’ is not in an ‘accessible’ and ‘interoperable’ formats! Many a times, the researchers in NARS do not know what is happening to the data and information after the publication. And much of the data and information would never get published! By this, we are not able to make the use of the data and information generated for meaningful analysis and development of new knowledge.

In a case study about the availability and accessibility of publications from the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI) reveals that the public availability of IARI publications is very meager. Only 9% articles published during 2008-10 were in open access journals and 14% of the total published articles are found deposited in  Eprints@IARI, an institutional repository of the IARI for the public access. Thus, only up to 23% of the IARI’s published literature is available and accessible to the public. This shows that there are barriers for the  publicly funded research outputs.

If we look at the other than research publication, as mentioned earlier, there is a lot of data and grey literature published/generated in NARS which is so important but does not go through traditional publication process. The data which is not published in articles and the data published in articles are not archived, not interoperable and not available properly!  The institutes in NARS are lacking a mandate which asks the researchers to make their data and information publicly available. Though there are evidences that when an institute/organisation has the suitable policy and resources, the data and information of that institute/organisation would be publicly available and accessible and the new knowledge generated by making meaningful analysis of the opened up data and information would improve the socio-economic impact of research and the researchers would have greater access to the published literature.

The Open Access repositories which are online locus for collecting, preserving, and disseminating, in digital form, the intellectual output of an institution (INASP) would not only publicize the institutes’ research but provides better management and invites new contacts and research partnerships. Above all, the interoperability of repositories would help in building global research commons. During the GCARD2, the CIARD movement which is working to make agricultural research information and knowledge publicly accessible to all was endorsed and it was recommended that the agricultural research institutes/organizations should continue to engage with the CIARD movement to enhance the coherence and effectiveness of access and use of agricultural information and data. Similarly, the BOAI 10 Recommendations also state that every institution of higher education should have a policy ensuring that peer-reviewed versions of all future scholarly articles by faculty members are deposited in the institution’s designated repository. And the universities with institutional repositories should consider recognition of the deposition of articles for promotion, tenure, or other forms of internal assessment and review.

Here is a policy brief on opening access to agricultural knowledge and survey report on the ‘Researcher Attitudes and Behaviour Towards the ‘Openness’ of Research Outputs in Agriculture and Related Fields’ from CIARD. Looking at the importance and need for opening up of access to the data, information and knowledge, we soon expect that the NARS would have a suitable policy on the availability, accessibility, interoperatbility and applicability of publicly-funded research outputs (data and information) for the benefit of all the stakeholders in agriculture.

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Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Association of India adopts CC-BY

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Association of India

The Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Association of India (MAPAI) had adopted creative commons CC-BY license for its official publication Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (OAJMAP). The recent announcement about this on its journals web page mentions that to fully realize the potential of open access to research literature, barriers to reuse need to be removed and it uses CC-BY and also recommends it as the preferred license for open access publications. It also adds that with the adoption of CC-BY license all those players would be encouraged who wish to develop new knowledge tools and services for making the research discovered and produce new knowledge. The Chief Commons Officer, John Wilbanks in the latest special issue of Nature on ‘The Future of Publishing‘ says that “A licence that is designed just for publishers might feel safer, but it is a fool’s errand”. He also mentions that CC-BY is widely used by scholarly publishers viz., BioMed Central, Hindawi and the Public Library of Science and it fulfills the community definitions of openness.

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Invitation for Quality Evaluation of UNESCO’s GOAP

goap_logo_en_transparentUNESCO’s Global Open Access Portal (GOAP) presenting the status of Open Access to scientific information around the world is in the process of doing a Quality Evaluation of UNESCO’s GOAP.  And is inviting experts and professionals involved with Open Access to offer their perspectives towards the advancement of Open Access policy by completing a short questionnaire online by March 22, 2013.

For more information, you may please contact Ms. Alison Macbeth, Communication and Information, UNESCO, New Delhi Office, India.

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