Delhi Declaration on Open Access

Released on 14th February, 2018

Delhi Declaration on Open Access

This declaration was drafted by a group comprising of researchers and professionals working for opening up access to research outputs for public good in India. The declaration is aimed at scientific communities, scholarly societies, publishers, funders, universities and research institutions to promote openness in science and research communications.

Preamble

The South Asian region, home to 24% of the world’s population faces major challenges such as hunger, poverty and inequality. These challenges become the collective responsibility of scholars and experts in research universities across the country. Consequently, it becomes imperative that  research institutes share scientific research outputs and accelerate  scientific research. The Open Access movement which aims for making all  ‘publicly funded research outcomes publicly available for the public good’ is gaining momentum.

Open means anyone can freely access, use, modify, and share for any purpose (subject, at most, to requirements that preserve provenance and openness)” –Open Definition.

As per the Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI), ‘Open Access’ (to scholarly literature) is “free availability on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself”.

Since the launch of the BOAI on 14th Feb. 2002, efforts are being made by various scholarly societies, academic communities and governments to make scholarly content Open. However, due to various reasons, the full potential of Open Access is not realised by the producers (scholars), publishers and readers (scholars and society at large) of this knowledge and the world is still disconnected in terms of sharing the scholarly content openly.

As per the Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR), India ranks 9th in the year 2016 producing about 13 lakhs articles. However, 82% of them are not Open Access and the Institutional Repositories in India are sparsely populated in spite of having Open Access mandates in place. The Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) lists only 200 out of the 20,000+ journals being published from India.

The historical BOAI is now 16 years old, but still there is a need for all of us to be educated and empowered to realize the power of Open Access to scholarly content and harness it for public good in India. With burgeoning commercial scholarly publications and increasing diversity in terms of availability of & accessibility to the information, we need to create a necessary framework for making Open Access the default by 2025 in India.

To ensure the wide availability and encourage the use of of research data and information for the purpose of addressing multifaceted  challenges, Open Access to publicly funded research and scholarly outputs are to be made available under Open Licenses (e.g. Creative Commons) while duly acknowledging  the intellectual property (work/rights of the creators/producers/authors).

Declaration

We, the contributors and signatories of this declaration, members of the Open Access India,  Open Access communities of practice in India and the attendees of the OpenCon 2018 New Delhi held on 3rd Feb., 2018 at Acharya Narendra Dev College, Kalkaji, New Delhi (University of Delhi) agree to issue this declaration:

  1. We advocate for the practice of Open Science (sharing  research methods and results openly which will avoid “reinventing the wheel”) and adoption of open technologies for the development of models for sharing science and scholarship (Open Scholarship) to accelerate the progress of research and to address the real societal challenges
  2. We will strive to publish our interim research outputs as preprints or postprints (e.g. Institutional Repositories) and encourage our peers and supervisors to do the same to make our research open and actionable in a timely manner.
  3. We will practice and encourage researchers and scientists to implement openness in peer-reviewing and other editorial services, influence the scholarly societies to flip their journals into Open Access and will contribute for the development of whitelist of Open Access journals in India adhering to the “Principles of Transparency and Best Practice in Scholarly Publishing”.
  4. We will garner support of the relevant stakeholders (scholars, journal editorial teams, university libraries, research funders, authorities’ in-charge of dissemination of scholarship in higher education) for spearheading the Open Access movement.
  5. We will take forward the concept of Open Access to further bring all the publicly funded research outputs (not limited to journal literature alone) to be freely available under open licenses to the public to use, reuse and share in any media in open formats.
  6. We will impress upon policy makers to adopt an open evaluation system for research and an institutional reward system for practicing openness in science ,scientific communications and academic research across disciplines including Humanities and Social Sciences
  7. We will support and work for an alternate reward system in recognition and promotion not in terms of the ‘Impact Factor’ of the journals, but the ‘Impact’ of the articles/scholarship in science and the society and impress upon all the scientists/scholars, research funders, research institutes, universities, academies and scholarly societies to sign the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA).
  8. We strongly agree with the Joint COAR-UNESCO Statement on Open Access ,  Jussieu Call and Dakar Declaration. And will also follow the international initiative Open Access 2020, to develop roadmaps to support sustainable Open Access scholarly communication models which are free of charge for the authors and free of charge availability to the readers.
  9. While learning from South South cooperation on Open Access,  will work for developing a framework for Open Access in India and South Asia: National Policies for Open Access and country-specific action plans will be formulated aimed at making Open Access as the default in India and South Asia, by 2025.
  10. For creating more awareness on Open Access, infrastructure, capacity building, funding and policy mechanisms, as well as incentivizing for the Open Access, we come forward to share success stories, studies and discussions during the Open Access Week.

Adopted on 14th February 2018

Signatories (along with their affiliation):

Anasua Mukherjee, BRICSLICS
Anubha Sinha, CIS India
Anup Kumar Das, Open Access India; CSSP, JNU
Arul George Scaria, NLU Delhi
Barnali Roy Choudhury, Open Access India
Bhakti R Gole, Open Access India
Girija Goyal, ReFigure.org
Javed Azmi, Jamia Hamdard
Kavya Manohar, Open Access India
Neha Sharma
Nirmala Menon, IIT Indore
Sailesh Patnaik, Access to Knowledge, CIS
Savithri Singh, Creative Commons India
Sridhar Gutam, Open Access India
Subhashish Panigrahi, Internet Society, O Foundation
Vijay Bhasker Lode, Open Access India
Virendra Kamalvanshi, Banaras Hindu University
Tanveer Hasan A K, Access to Knowledge,  Bangalore
Waseem A Malla

Ahsan Ullah, Bangladesh
Anila Sulochana, Central University of Tamil Nadu
Anoh Kouao Antoine, Ecole Supérieure Africaine des TIC, Côte d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast)
Antonio Solís Lima,México
Atarino Helieisar, FSM Supreme Court Law Library, Federated States of Micronesia
Bidyarthi Dutta, Vidyasagar University
Binoy Mathew, INELI
Boye Komla Dogbe, Ministère De La Communication, De La Culture, Togo
Srikanth Reddy, CBIT
Cajetan Onyeneke, Imo State University, Nigeria
Chantal Moukoko Kamole, Universitty of Douala, Cameroun
D Puthira Prathap, Extension Education Society
Daniel Bossikponnon, Ministère du plan et du Développement, Bénin
Dare Adeleke, the Federal Polytechnic, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria
Dilip Man Sthapit, TU Central Library/LIMISEC, Nepal
Emmy Medard Muhumuza, Busitema University Library, Uganda
Fabian Yelsang, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research and Consultancy Services, Ghana
Fayaz Loan, University of Kashmir
GJP Dixit, Central Library, Central University of Karnataka
Gurpreet Singh Sohal, GGDSD College
Harinder Pal Singh Kalra, Punjabi University
Hue Bui, Thainguyen University of Sciences, Vietnam
Jacinto Dávila, Universidad de Los Andes, Venezuela
Jaishankar K, International Journal of Cyber Criminology
Jancy Gupta, National Dairy Research Institute
JK Vijayakumar
Jonathan Tennant, Open Science MOOC, Germany
Julián Vaquerizo-Madrid, Unidad de Neurología Clínica Evolutiva, Spain
Kamal Hossain, University of Liberal Arts Bangladesh (ULAB), Bangladesh
Kasongo Ilunga Felix, Democratic Republic of Congo
Kavita Chaddha
Kojo Ahiakpa, Research Desk Consulting Ltd., Ghana
Krishna Chaitanya, Velaga, the Wikipedia Library
Kumaresan Chidambaranathan, New Zealand
Kunwar Singh, Banaras Hindu University
Luis Saravia, PERU
Mahendra Sahu, Gandhi Institution of Engineering & Technology,Gunupur
Maidhili S., Meenakshi College for Women
Manika Lamba, University of Delhi
Md. Nasir Uddin, BRAC University, Bangladesh
Md. Nazim Uddin, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh
Md. Nurul Islam, International Islamic University Chittagong, Bangladesh
Md. Shahajada Masud Anowarul Haque, BRAC University, Bangladesh
Mir Sakhawat Hossain, Kabi Nazrul Government College, Bangladesh
Munusamy Natarajan, CSIR-NISCAIR
Murtoza Kh Ali, Bangladesh
Subash Pillai, ICAR-Indian Institute of Farming Systems Research
Nasar Ahmed Shah, Aligarh Muslim University
Nimesh Oza, Sardar Patel University
Niraj Chaudhary, United States
Poonam Bharti
Prerna Singh, Central University of Jammu
Rabia Bashir, Law and Parliamentary Affairs, Pakistan
Rajendran Murugan, Department of Education, University of Delhi
Rama Kant Shukla, Delhi Technological University
Raman Nair R, Centre for Informatics Research and Development
Rebat Kumar Dhakal, KUSOED Integrity Alliance, Nepal
Revocatus Kuluchumila, AMUCTA, Tanzania
M. Humayun Kabir Tutul, National Health Library & Documentation Centre, Bangladesh
Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri, University of Calcutta
Sandipan Banerjee
Satwinder Bangar
Shahana Jahan, Bangladesh
Shamnad Basheer, SpicyIP
Shivendra Singh
Shreyashi Ray, NLU, Delhi
Sivakrishna Sivakoti
Soumen Kayal, Maharaja Manindra chandra College
Srinivasarao Muppidi, Sanketika Vidya Parishad Engineering College
Stephanie Gross, MSLIS from Pratt Institute, USA
Sujata Tetali, MACS-Agharkar Research Institute
Surjodeb Lulu Hono Basu
Susmita Das, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council, Bangladesh
Susmita Chakraborty, University of Calcutta
Thilagavathi, Thillai Natarajan, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women
Umesh Kumar
Umme Habiba, Noakhali Science and Technology University, Bangladesh
Vinita, Jain, M D College of Arts, Science and Commerce
Virginia Inés Simón, Red Iberoamericana de Expertos sobre la Convención de los Derechos de las Personas con Discapacidad, Argentina
Vrushali Dandawate, AISSMS College of Engineering/DOAJ
Waqar Khan, Dhaka Shishu Hospital, Bangladesh
Wilbert Zvakafa, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Zimbabwe
Yasser Ahmed, South Valley University, Egypt
Yohann Thomas, Wikimedia India
Zakir Hossain, International Association of School Librarianship, International Schools Region, Switzerland
Dahmane Madjid, CERIST, Algeria
Nagarjuna G, Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education, TIFR
Sulyman Sodeeq Abdulakeem, Federal Polytechnic Offa, Nigeria
Leena Shah, DOAJ
Hamady Issaga Sy, Sénégal
Sanket Oswal, Wikimedia India
Chitralekha, University of Delhi
Chris Zielinski, University of Winchester, United Kingdom
Mourya Biswas, Prateek Media
Rafiq Islam, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Bangladesh
Ramanuj Konar, Sarat Centenary College
Cable Green, Creative Commons, United States
Nur Ahammad, Independent University, Bangladesh
Ramadas G, Noorul Islam Center for Higher Education
Dinesh K.Gupta, Kurukshetra University
Maryann Osuji, Federal University of Technology, Nigeria
Akash Singh, National Law University Delhi
Pablo Gentili, CLACSO-Latin American Council of Social Sciences, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Dominique Babini, CLACSO-Latin American Council of Social Sciences, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Víctor Manuel Gutiérrez Torres, Voces de la educación, Xalapa, México
Irazema E. Ramírez Hernández, Benemérita Escuela Normal Veracruzana “Enrique C. Rébsamen”, Xalapa, México
Víctor Manuel Gutiérrez Torres, Voces de la educación, Xalapa, México
Irazema E. Ramírez Hernández, Benemérita Escuela Normal Veracruzana “Enrique C. Rébsamen”, Xalapa, México
Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay, Kalyani University
Achala Munigal, Hyderabad
Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari, QAMER, Hyderabad
Sargu Sudarshan Rao, Osmania University, Hyderabad
Gorla Praveen, JNTUH-College of Engineering, Hyderabad
Sushil Kumar, Chitkara University, Chandigarh
Giriraj Halkar, National Institute of Health & Family Welfare, New Delhi
Kavita Chaddha, IIM Lucknow, Noida
Kishor Satpathy, Indian Statistical Institute Kolkata, Kolkata
Mariela Salgado A, Chia, Cundinamarca, Colombia
Nibedita Borgohain, Jorhat

The Knowledge Societies Division, UNESCO supports this Declaration.

To sign the declaration, please fill in the form: https://goo.gl/forms/BUJSRusvtRlYOaFl2 and your name will be added.

Contact:
Sridhar Gutam, Convenor, Open Access India
Email: sridhar@openaccessindia.org or gutam2000@gmail.com
Phone: +91-9005760036/+91-8002678768

OPEN ACCESS RESEARCH IMPACTS

Notes adapted from Unesco Course on understanding open access :

In an open access (OA) world, much importance has been given to using open source tools, open access resources and open solutions to engage authors and researchers in collaborative research, peer-to-peer sharing of scholarly information and collaborative evaluation of scholars’ works. On the other hand, exponential growth of scientific literature also has led to rapid disappearance of nascent literature before it actually gets noticed by the scientific communities. No single database can capture this over-growing scientific literature. Several data mining tools are probably required to keep abreast with quantum of emerging literature. In this Unit, various tools and techniques have been discussed in details to help the library and information professionals in strengthening their efforts in enhancing scientific productivity, visibility, reputation, and impact of research works of their affiliated scientific researchers. This Unit briefly discusses various conventional citation-based indicators available for assessing scientific productivity of authors, journals and institutions. This Unit also identifies emerging indicators such as h-index, i10-index, Eigenfactor score, article influence score and source normalized impact per paper. The social webs, available to the researchers’ communities in addition to any other groups of citizens, help the researchers in disseminating their produced or contributed knowledge to global communities. Much you are active in social media, more you have chances to get noticed by fellow researchers and possible research collaborators. Many personalized web-based services are now increasingly made available targeting global researchers’ communities, helping them to enhance their social media presence and visibility. These factors influence the development of new metrics called article level metrics or altmetrics. Finally, this Unit also briefly discusses the emergence of the open citation databases for text mining and data mining of open access literature.

 

Commonly Used Terms for Assessing Research Impacts:

 

1.Bibliometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyse academic literature and scholarly communications.

2.Informetrics is the study of quantitative aspects of information. This includes the production, dissemination, and use of all forms of information, regardless of its form or origin.

3.Scientometrics is the study of quantitative features and characteristics of science, scientific research and scholarly communications.

4.Webometrics is the study of quantitative features, characteristics, structure and usage patterns of the worldwide web, its hyperlinks and internet resources.

5.Cybermetrics is an alternative term for Webometrics to measure the World Wide Web, cyber media, web resources and hyperlinks.

6.Librametrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyse availability of documents in libraries, their usage and impact of library services to its user community.

6.Patentometrics is a set of methods to quantitatively analyse patent databases, patent citations and their usage patterns.

7.Altmetrics is a new metrics proposed as an alternative to the widely used journal impact factor and personal citation indices like the h-index. The term altmetrics was proposed in 2010, as a generalization of article level metrics, and has its roots in the twitter #altmetrics hashtag. Article Level Metrics (ALM) Article level metrics is an alternative term for Altmetrics.

Applications of Scientometrics and Bibliometrics in Research Assessment :

In the last sixty years, evaluation of public funded research has been carried out globally on a regular basis for performance measurement of different actors of scientific research. Most of the citation databases and citation analysis tools available in today’s world have functionalities to instantly generate reports and scientometric profile of a scientist, an institution, a collaborative research group, a country, or a journal. Some of the popular applications of scientometrics and bibliometrics listed below can use report generator tools available with citation-based products and services.

 

 For Institution/ Collaborative Research Group: mapping of collaborations, top collaborating institutions, top collaborating countries, collaborating with public vs. private institutions, highly cited papers, highly cited authors, top contributing scientists, top publishing journals, scientists with top h-index, top subject categories or research domains, percentage of cited vs. uncited papers, percentage of self-citations, publishing in OA vs. subscription-based journals, comparative study of two or more institutions in a region/ country.

 

 For a scientist: mapping of collaborations, collaborating institutions, collaborating countries, mapping of co-authors, highly cited papers, top publishing journals, percentage of cited vs. uncited papers, percentage of self-citations, author-level indicators such as h-index, i10-index, etc.

For a country: top contributing institutions, top contributing cities, top contributing states, top funding agencies supporting research, top affiliating apex bodies, mapping of collaborations, top collaborating countries, top collaborating institutions, top contributing scientists, top publishing journals, top subject categories or research domains, percentage of cited vs. uncited papers, percentage of self-citations, highly cited papers, highly cited authors, top scientists with h-index, publishing by public vs. private institutions, publishing in OA vs. subscription-based journals, comparative study of two or more countries in a region or globally.

For a journal: highly cited papers, highly cited authors, percentage of cited vs. uncited papers, percentage of self-citations, top research domains, cited half-life vs. citing half-life, top contributing institutions, top contributing cities, top contributing countries, most downloaded papers, most shared papers, and highly ranked journals based on citation-based indicators.

To read more on the indicators and understanding them better please follow the http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0023/002319/231920E.pdf

 

Course of openaccess by Unesco chapter Introduction to open access @http://www.unesco.org/new/en/communication-and-information/resources/news-and-in-focus-articles/all-news/news/unescos_open_access_oa_curriculum_is_now_online.

A Very Brief Introduction to Open Access By Peter Suber

Open-access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. What makes it possible is the internet and the consent of the author or copyright-holder.

In most fields, scholarly journals do not pay authors, who can therefore consent to OA without losing revenue. In this respect scholars and scientists are very differently situated from most musicians and movie-makers, and controversies about OA to music and movies do not carry over to research literature.

OA is entirely compatible with peer review, and all the major OA initiatives for scientific and scholarly literature insist on its importance. Just as authors of journal articles donate their labor, so do most journal editors and referees participating in peer review.

OA literature is not free to produce, even if it is less expensive to produce than conventionally published literature. The question is not whether scholarly literature can be made costless, but whether there are better ways to pay the bills than by charging readers and creating access barriers. Business models for paying the bills depend on how OA is delivered.

There are two primary vehicles for delivering OA to research articles: OA journals and OA archives or repositories.

OA archives or repositories do not perform peer review, but simply make their contents freely available to the world. They may contain unrefereed preprints, refereed postprints, or both. Archives may belong to institutions, such as universities and laboratories, or disciplines, such as physics and economics. Authors may archive their preprints without anyone else’s permission, and a majority of journals already permit authors to archive their postprints. When archives comply with the metadata harvesting protocol of the Open Archives Initiative, then they are interoperable and users can find their contents without knowing which archives exist, where they are located, or what they contain. There is now open-source software for building and maintaining OAI-compliant archives and worldwide momentum for using it.
OA journals perform peer review and then make the approved contents freely available to the world. Their expenses consist of peer review, manuscript preparation, and server space. OA journals pay their bills very much the way broadcast television and radio stations do: those with an interest in disseminating the content pay the production costs upfront so that access can be free of charge for everyone with the right equipment. Sometimes this means that journals have a subsidy from the hosting university or professional society. Sometimes it means that journals charge a processing fee on accepted articles, to be paid by the author or the author’s sponsor (employer, funding agency). OA journals that charge processing fees usually waive them in cases of economic hardship. OA journals with institutional subsidies tend to charge no processing fees. OA journals can get by on lower subsidies or fees if they have income from other publications, advertising, priced add-ons, or auxiliary services. Some institutions and consortia arrange fee discounts. Some OA publishers waive the fee for all researchers affiliated with institutions that have purchased an annual membership. There’s a lot of room for creativity in finding ways to pay the costs of a peer-reviewed OA journal, and we’re far from having exhausted our cleverness and imagination.
For a longer introduction, with live links for further reading, see my Open Access

Overview, http://www.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/overview.htm.
Peter Suber
Director, Harvard Office for Scholarly Communication
Director, Harvard Open Access Project
Faculty Fellow, Berkman Center for Internet & Society
Senior Researcher, Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition
Research Professor of Philosophy, Earlham College
peter.suber@gmail.com

 

Follow the orginal article @

http://legacy.earlham.edu/~peters/fos/brief.htm

What are Open Educational Resources

There is no one, standard definition of Open Educational Resources. However, the following broad definition of OERs from OER Commons seems to be generally accepted by the community:

 

Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching and learning materials that are freely available online for everyone to use, whether you are an instructor, student or self-learner. Examples of OER include: full courses, course modules, syllabi, lectures, homework assignments, quizzes, lab and classroom activities, pedagogical materials, games, simulations, and many more resources contained in digital media collections from around the world.

OERs exist within a wider ‘Open’ movement and context, explored below.

The Open Movement

A range of ‘Open’ philosophies and models have emerged during the 20th Century as a result of several different drivers and motivations – including sharing freely, preventing duplication, avoiding restrictive  (Copyright) practices, promoting economic efficiencies and improving access to wide groups of stakeholders. Many of these have been driven by and created by communities that recognise the benefits to themselves, and sometimes to wider groups. Some of these are listed below:

 

  • Open source (relating to business and technology)
  • Open source software
  • Open source hardware
  • Open standards
  • Open access (research)
  • Open design
  • Open knowledge
  • Open data
  • Open content
  • Open courseware
  • Open educational resources
  • Open educational practice

 

Several of these ‘movements’ or ‘philosophies’ have been significant within the education community both in terms of research and learning & teaching (particularly educational technology). Whilst it is widely expected that sharing and openness would bring benefits to some stakeholders in the educational community, traditional cultures and practices, managerial approaches and processes, and perceived legal complexities have been identified as barriers to sharing both within and across institutions. (refs: CD LOR, TRUST DR, Sharing e-learning content, Good Intentions report)

 

Whilst the terms ‘Open content’ and ‘Open courseware’ are sometimes used to mean the wide range of resources to support learning and teaching, one is fairly broad and the other very specific. We have chosen to use the term Open Educational Resources (OER) as this relates to resources that are specifically licenced to be used and re-used in an educational context.

 

What are educational resources?  

Whilst purely informational content has a significant role in learning and teaching, it is helpful to consider learning resources by their levels of granularity and to focus on the degree to which information content is embedded within a learning activity:

 

  • Digital assets – normally a single file (e.g. an image, video or audio clip), sometimes called a ‘raw media asset’;
  • Information objects – a structured aggregation of digital assets, designed purely to present information;
  • Learning objects – an aggregation of one or more digital assets which represents an educationally meaningful stand-alone unit;
  • Learning activities – tasks involving interactions with information to attain a specific learning outcome;
  • Learning design – structured sequences of information and activities to promote learning.

 

(adapted from Littlejohn, A., Falconer, I. and McGill, L. (2008) ‘Characterising effective eLearning resources’. Computers & Education, 50 (3), pp. 757-771.)

 

What are open educational resources?

The following definitions and examples are taken from a paper prepared by Li Yuan at JISC CETIS in 2008 concerning the state of open educational resources internationally. This well-received paper can be accessed from the CETIS website.

 

The term Open Educational Resources (OER) was first introduced at a conference hosted by UNESCO in 2000 and was promoted in the context of providing free access to educational resources on a global scale. As mentioned above, there is no authoritatively accredited definition for the term OER at present, with the OECD preferring, ‘digitised materials offered freely and openly for educators, students and self-learners to use and reuse for teaching, learning and research’ (OECD, 2007). Stephen Downes presents a useful overview of what Open Educational Resources are in Open Education: Projects and Potential.

 

“Engagement with OER can be light touch. New staff should be encouraged to source open materials when creating new educational materials (from CC resources or other OER), and to fully reference all other assets in their teaching materials. An academic’s own digital assets such as images, pod casts and video can be released under a CC licence to web 2.0.” GEES Project final report

 

OER initiatives aspire to provide open access to high-quality education resources on a global scale. From large institution-based or institution-supported initiatives to numerous small-scale activities, the number of OER related programmes and projects has been growing quickly within the past few years.

 

According to OECD in 2007, there are materials from more than 3000 open access courses (open courseware) currently available from over 300 universities worldwide:

 

  • In the United States resources from thousands of courses have been made available by university-based projects, such as MIT OpenCourseWare and Rice University’s Connexions project: (http://ocw.mit.edu/, http://cnx.rice.edu/ )

 

  • In China, materials from 750 courses have been made available by 222 university members of the China Open Resources for Education (CORE) consortium.(http://www.core.org.cn/en/).

 

  • In Japan, resources from more than 400 courses have been made available by the19 member universities of the Japanese OCW Consortium. (http://www.jocw.jp/).

 

  • In France, 800 educational resources from around 100 teaching units have been made available by the 11 member universities of the ParisTech OCW project. (http://graduateschool.paristech.org/).

 

  • In Ireland, universities received government funding to build open access institutional repositories and to develop a federated harvesting and discovery service via a national portal. It is intended that this collaboration will be expanded to embrace all Irish research institutions. (http://www.irel-open.ie/).

 

  • And in the UK, the Open University has released a range of its distance learning materials via the OpenLearn project (http://openlearn.open.ac.uk/), and over 80 UKOER projects have released many resources (via Jorum) which are used to support teaching in institutions and across a range of subject areas.

 

For a more visual explanation of Open Educational Resources look at Stephen Downes’ presentation on Slideshare.

 

For more /Original article,Please read at the link below :https://openeducationalresources.pbworks.com/w/page/24836860/What%20are%20Open%20Educational%20Resources

Open Definition in Hindi मुक्त की परिभाषा

Open Definition in Hindi ( मुक्त की परिभाषा) is published at http://opendefinition.org/od/2.0/hi/. This translation work is done by Dr. K. Srivally, MANAGE, Hyderabad

वर्शन 2.0

मुक्त की परिभाषा ‘ओपेन’ के अर्थ को ज्ञान, संपुष्ट आम जनता जिनमें से कोई भी इसमें भाग ले सकता है और अंतर परिचालन किया को उच्चतम सीमा तक बढ़ाए।

सारांश:  ज्ञान सबके लिए खुला है कोई भी उसे प्राप्त कर सकता है, उपयोग एवं बदल सकता है और साथ ही उसका आदान प्रदान भी उद्गम और खुलेपन की उपायों के अनुसार ही देख सकते है।*

ओपेन सोर्स Open Source Definition की परिभाषा में जैसे बताया गया है सॉफ्टवेयर के संबंध में ‘ओपेन’ के अर्थ के साथ इसका अर्थ साम्यता रखता है और अंग्रेजी ‘फ्री’ और ‘लिबर’ ‘शब्दों के समानार्थी ‘शब्द है जो कि फ्री कलचरल वक्र्स Definition of Free Cultural Works की परिभाषा में है। प्रारंभ में ओपेन की परिभाषा ओपेन सोर्स की परिभाषा से उत्पन्न हुआ है, जिसकी कुप्पत्ति डेबियन फ्री सॉफ्टवेयर निर्देश सूत्रों Debian Free Software Guidelines से हुआ है।

‘वर्क’ शब्द का उपयोग अंतरित की जाने वाली ज्ञान या विषय का भाग होगा।

लाइसेन्स शब्द का अर्थ उन न्यायिक स्थितियों जिसके तहत कार्य को उपलब्ध कराया जाता है। जहा¡ कोई लाइसेन्स नहीं दिया जाता जिसे कार्य को नियंत्रित करने वाली न्यायिक स्थितियों के रूप में समझा जा सकता (उदाहरण की कॉपी रईट या पब्लिक डोमेईन)

1. मुक्त कार्य

किसी भी मुक्त कार्य को अपने वितरण में निम्नलिखित आव’यकताओं की पूर्ती करनी चाहिए।

1.1 मुक्त लाइसेन्स

किसी भी कार्य मुक्त लाइसेन्स के तहत उपलब्ध होना चाहिए (जैसे धारा-2 में परिभाषित किया गया है) यदि कार्य के साथ कोई अतिरिक्त शब्द जुड़ा हुआ है (जैसे उपयोग की शर्ते, या लाइसेन्स प्रदायक द्वारा आयोजित पेटेंट), तो उसे लाइसेन्स के प्रतिकूल नहीं होना चाहिए।

1.2 अभिगम

कार्य सकल के रूप में उपलब्ध होना चाहिए और जहा¡ तक हो सके एक बार से अधिक पुन: सृजन दर से अधिक न हो और इंटरनेट के माध्यम से नि:शुल्क डाउनलोड करने योग्य हो तो अच्छा होगा। लाइसेन्स अनुपालन के लिए आव’यक कोई अतिरिक्त सूचना (जैसे आरोपण आव’यकताओं के साथ अनुपालन हेतु आव’यक योगदानकर्ताओं के नाम) भी कार्य के साथ संलग्न होने चाहिए।

1.3 मुक्त रूप रेखा

कोई भी कार्य सुविधा जनक एवं परिवर्तनशील रूप में दिया जाए ताकि लाइसेन्स दिए गए अधिकारों के नि”पादन में कोई अनाव’यक तकनीकी अड़चन न हो। विशेष्ता:, सूचना मशीन पर पठन योग्य, अधिक मात्रा में उपलब्ध तथा मुक्त रूपरेखा मे प्रदान किया जाए (अर्थात मुक्त रूप में उपलब्ध प्रकाशिता विनिर्देशों की रूप रेखा में हो जो उपयोग करने पर किसी आर्थिक या अन्य प्रतिबंध न लगते हो) या न्यूनत: किसी एक मुक्त/खुला स्रोत सॉफ्टवेयर टूल से उपयोग किया जा सकता है।

2. मुक्त लाइसेन्स

निम्न शर्तो को पूरा करने वाला लाइसेन्स ‘मुक्त’ माना जाएगा।

2.1 आव’यक अनुमति

लाइसेन्स को अपरिवर्तनीय रूप से निम्नलिखित को अनुमति देनी चाहिए।

2.1.1 उपयोग

किसी भी लाइसेन्स को लाइसेन्स धारक कार्य को मुक्त रूप से उपयोग करने की अनुमति देनी चाहिए।

2.1.2 पुन: विवरण

विभिन्न स्रोतों के कार्यो से तैयार किए गए संकलन का भाग या स्वत: तैयार संकलन, बिक्री सहित, लाइसेन्स कार्य को पुन: वितरित करने हेतु लाइसेन्स अनुमति देनी चाहिए।

2.1.3 परिवर्तन

लाइसेन्स को लाइसेन्स धारी कार्यों के व्युत्पादों को तैयार करने की अनुमति देनी चाहिए और ऐसे व्युत्पादों का विवरण मूल लाइसेन्स धारी कार्यो के नियमों के तहत करने की अनुमति देनी चाहिए।

2.1.4 अलगाव

लाइसेन्स को किसी भी कार्य के भाग का मुक्त उपयोग, वितरण करने की सहमति देनी चाहिए या कार्य के किसी और भाग से अलग परिवर्तन या कार्यों के संकलन जिनमें कार्य मुलत: वितरित किए जा चुके हैं को अनुमति देनी चाहिए। मूल लाइसेन्स के नियमों के भीतर किसी वितरण का किसी कार्य के भाग को प्राप्त करने वाले सभी पार्टियों को वही अधिकार होने चाहिए जो कि संयोग से मूल कार्य में दिए गए है।

2.1.5 संकलन

लाइसेन्स को अन्य विशेष कार्यो सहित वितरित हाने के लिए इन अन्य कार्यों पर प्रतिबंध लगाए बिना लाइसेन्स कार्य को अनुमति देन चाहिए।

2.1.6 गैर-भेदभाव

लाइसेन्स को किसी भी व्यक्ति या समूह के विपरीत भेद भाव व्यक्त नहीं करना चाहिए।

2.1.7 प्रचार

किसी कार्य के साथ संलग्न अधिकार बिना किसी अतिरिक्त कानूनी नियमों की स्वीकृति के उन सभी के लिए लागू होने चाहिए जिन्हे वे पुन: वितरित किए गए हैं।

2.1.8 किसी भी उद्दे’य के लिए लागू करना

किसी भी विशेष प्रयास के क्षेत्र में कार्य का उपयोग करने के लिए लाइसेन्स किसी पर प्रतिबंध नहीं लगाना चाहिए।

2.1.9 बिना किसी शुल्क:

लाइसेन्स को अपने शर्तो के भाग के रूप में कोई शुल्क, रॉयल्टी या अन्य कोई मुआवजा या मैट्रिक परिश्रमिक नहीं लगाना चाहिए।

2.2 स्वीकार्य शर्तो

लाइसेन्स को निम्न स्वीकार्य योग्य शर्तो के अलावा दिए गए धारा 2.1 में सीमाओं, अनिश्चितता या आव’यक अनुमतियों को घटाना नहीं चाहिए।

2.2.1 संबंध

लाइसेन्स को कार्य के वितरण में योगदान कर्ता के संबंध, धारको, प्रायोजकों तथा सृजकों के अधिकारों को साम्मिलित करने की आवा’यकता होगी जब तक कि ऐसे निर्देश कष्टदायक नहीं हैं।

2.2.2 प्रामाणिकता

लाइसेन्स के लिए लाइसेन्स धारी कार्य में किए गए परिवर्तनों को मूल कार्य से अलग नामित करने या संस्करण संख्या डालने या किए गए परिवर्तनों को इंगित करने की आवश्यकता है।

2.2.3 समान अधिकार

लाइसेन्स के लिए लाइसेन्स धारी कार्य की प्रतिया¡ या उससे उत्पन्न कार्यों की आवश्यकता है ताकि मूल के समान्तर लाइसेन्स के अधीन रख सके।

2.2.4 सूचना

लाइसेन्स को कॉपीराईट सूचनाओं तथा लाइसेन्स की पहचान को धारण करने की आव’यकता है।

2.2.5 श्रोत

लाइसेन्स के लिए परिवर्तित कार्यों के अगले परिवर्तनों हेतु आवश्यक रूप रेखा में उपलब्ध कराने की आव’यकता है।

2.2.6 तकनीकी प्रतिबंध निषेध:

लाइसेन्स यदि तकनीकी सीमाएं प्रतिबंध लगाते हैं तो कार्य के वितरण को निषेध करता है या अधिकार प्रदान करता है।

2.2.7 गैर आक्रमकता:

लाइसेन्स को परिवर्तन करने वालों के लिए लाइसेन्स द्वारा अनुमति प्राप्त अधिकारों के उपयोग करने के लिए आव’यक सार्वजनिक अतिरिक्त अनुमति (उदाहरणार्थ पेटेन्ट लाइसेन्स) देने की आवश्यकता है। लाइसेन्स स्वीकृति अधिकार के उपयोग के संबंध में लाइसेन्स प्रदान करने वालों का अतिक्रमण नहीं करने पर भी अनुमति निषेध कर सकता है।

अनुवादक: डॉ कस्तूरी श्रीवल्ली, राष्ट्रीय कृषि विस्तार प्रबंध संस्थान (मैनेज), हैदराबाद, भारत। ksrivally@manage.gov.in